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Learn More. Epic Spartan Races. Other authors, notably Thucydides , also provide information, but it is not always as reliable as Xenophon's first-hand accounts.

Little is known of the earlier organisation, and much is left open to speculation. The earliest form of social and military organization during the 7th century BC seems to have been the three tribes phylai : the Pamphyloi , Hylleis and Dymanes , who appear in the Second Messenian War — BC.

A further subdivision was the "fraternity" phratra , of which 27, or nine per tribe, are recorded. Four lochoi formed a mora of men under a polemarchos , the largest single tactical unit of the Spartan army.

The full army was normally led in battle by the two kings ; initially, both went on campaign, but after the 6th century BC only one, with the other remaining at home.

Despite their title, they were infantry hoplites like all Spartiatai. Indeed, the Spartans did not utilize a cavalry of their own until late into the Peloponnesian War , when small units of 60 cavalrymen were attached to each mora.

They were selected every year by specially commissioned officials, the hippagretai , from among experienced men who had sons, so that their line would continue.

At first, in the archaic period of — BC, education for both sexes was, as in most Greek states , centred on the arts, with the male citizen population later receiving military education.

However, from the 6th century onwards, the military character of the state became more pronounced, and education was totally subordinated to the needs of the military.

Both boys and girls were brought up by the city women until the age of seven, when boys paidia were taken from their mothers and grouped together in "packs" agelai and were sent to what is almost equivalent to present-day military boot camp.

This military camp was known as the Agoge. They became inured to hardship, being provided with scant food and clothing; this also encouraged them to steal, and if they were caught, they were punished — not for stealing, but for being caught.

In addition, they were taught to read and write and learned the songs of Tyrtaios , that celebrated Spartan exploits in the Second Messenian War.

They learned to read and write not for cultural reasons, but so they could be able to read military maps. His physical education was intensified, discipline became much harsher, and the boys were loaded with extra tasks.

The youths had to go barefoot, and were dressed only in a tunic both in summer and in winter. Adulthood was reached at the age of 18, and the young adult eiren initially served as a trainer for the boys.

At the same time, the most promising youths were included in the Krypteia. If they survived the two years in the countryside they would become full blown soldiers.

At 20, Spartans became eligible for military service and joined one of the messes syssitia , which included 15 men of various ages.

However, even after that, and even during marriage and until about the age of 30, they would spend most of their day in the barracks with their unit.

Military duty lasted until the 60th year, but there are recorded cases of older people participating in campaigns in times of crisis.

Throughout their adult lives, the Spartiates continued to be subject to a training regime so strict that, as Plutarch says, " Like the armies of the other Greek states, the Spartan army was an infantry-based army that fought using the phalanx formation.

The Spartans themselves did not introduce any significant changes or tactical innovations in hoplite warfare, but their constant drill and superb discipline made their phalanx much more cohesive and effective.

The Spartans employed the phalanx in the classical style in a single line, uniformly deep in files of 8 to 12 men. When fighting alongside their allies, the Spartans would normally occupy the honorary right flank.

If, as usually happened, the Spartans achieved victory on their side, they would then wheel left and roll up the enemy formation.

During the Peloponnesian War, engagements became more fluid, light troops became increasingly used and tactics evolved to meet them, but in direct confrontations between two opposing phalanxes, stamina and "pushing ability" were what counted.

According to Xenophon , the army was mobilized by the ephors , and after a series of religious ceremonies and sacrifices, the army assembled and set out.

To the Spartans, long hair retained its older Archaic meaning as the symbol of a free man; to the other Greeks, by the 5th century, its peculiar association with the Spartans had come to signify pro-Spartan sympathies.

The technical evolution and design of Spartan shields evolved from bashing and shield wall tactics, and were of such great importance in the Spartan army that while losing a sword and a spear was an exception, to lose a shield was a sign of disgrace.

Not only does it protect the user, but it also protects the whole phalanx formation. To come home without the shield was the mark of a deserter; rhipsaspia or "dropping the shield", was a synonym for desertion in the field.

Spartan hoplites were often depicted bearing a transverse horsehair crest on their helmet, which was possibly used to identify officers.

During the later 5th century BC, when warfare had become more flexible and full-scale phalanx confrontations became rarer, the Greeks abandoned most forms of body armor.

The Spartan's main weapon was the dory spear. For long range, they carried a javelin. The Spartiates were always armed with a xiphos as a secondary weapon.

Among most Greek warriors, this weapon had an iron blade of about 60 centimeters; however, the Spartan version was typically only 30—45 centimetres.

The Spartans' shorter weapon proved deadly in the crush caused by colliding phalanxes formations — it was capable of being thrust through gaps in the enemy's shield wall and armor, where there was no room for longer weapons.

The groin and throat were among the favorite targets. In one account, an Athenian asked a Spartan why his sword was so short and after a short pause he replied, "It's long enough to reach your heart.

As an alternative to the xiphos, some Spartans selected the kopis as their secondary weapon. Unlike the xiphos, which is a thrusting weapon, the kopis was a hacking weapon in the form of a thick, curved iron sword.

In Athenian art, Spartan hoplites were often depicted using a kopis instead of the xiphos, as the kopis was seen as a quintessential "bad guys" weapon in Greek eyes.

Spartans trained in pankration , a famous martial art in Ancient Greece that consisted of boxing and grappling. Spartans were so adept in pankration that, when it was inducted in the Olympic Games , they were mostly forbidden to compete.

During the Hellenistic period Spartan equipment evolved drastically. Since the early 5th century BC the pilos helmet had become almost standard within the Spartan army, being in use by the Spartans until the end of the Classical era.

Also after the "Iphicratean reforms" peltasts became a much more common sight on the Greek battlefield and themselves became more heavily armed.

In response to Iphicrates ' victory over Sparta in BC , Spartan hoplites started abandoning body armour and eventually wore almost no armour apart from a shield, leg greaves, bracelets, helmet and a robe.

In later periods Spartans did start to readopt armour, but on a much lesser scale than during the Archaic period. Finally during BC, Cleomenes' reforms introduced updated equipment to Sparta, including the Macedonian sarissa pike.

However pike-men armed with the sarissa never outnumbered troops equipped in the hoplite style. It was also in that time Sparta adopted its own cavalry and archers.

Contrary to popular belief, Spartans valued knowledge and education more than the Athenians did. Although Athens has been praised as the "inventor" of democracy and philosophy, Sparta often has been viewed in popular culture as a society characterized by brutal, mindless discipline and merciless emphasis on physical fitness.

In the Appella or Demos as early as BC, Spartans elect leaders and voted by range voting and shouting.

Every male age 30 and above could participate. Aristotle called the Spartan electoral process "childish" in contrast to the stone ballots cast by the Athenians.

Sparta adopted its procedure for the sake of simplicity, and to prevent any bias voting, bribing, or cheating that was predominant in the early democratic elections.

The Spartan public education system, the agoge , trained the mind as well as the body. Spartans were not only literate, but admired for their intellectual culture and poetry.

Socrates said the "most ancient and fertile homes of philosophy among the Greeks are Crete and Sparta, where are found more sophists than anywhere on earth.

Self-discipline, not kadavergehorsam mindless obedience was the goal of Spartan education. Sparta placed the values of liberty, equality, and fraternity at the center of their ethical system.

These values applied to every full Spartan citizen, immigrant, merchant, and even to the helots , but not to the dishonored.

Helots are unique in the history of slavery in that unlike traditional slaves, they were allowed to keep and gain wealth.

They could keep half their agricultural produce and presumably sell it; thus accumulating wealth. There are known to have been some occasions that a helot with enough money was allowed to purchase their freedom from the state.

The Spartan hoplite followed a strict laconic code of honor. No soldier was considered superior to another.

Recklessness could lead to dishonor, as in the case of Aristodemus. Dishonored Spartans were labeled outcasts, and were forced to wear different clothing for public humiliation.

Throughout their history, the Spartans were a land based force par excellence. During the Persian Wars, they contributed a small navy of 20 triremes , and provided the overall fleet commander, but they largely relied on their allies, primarily the Corinthians , for naval power.

This fact meant that, when the Peloponnesian War broke out, the Spartans were supreme on land, but the Athenians supreme at sea.

The Spartans repeatedly ravaged Attica , but the Athenians kept being supplied by sea, and were able to stage raids of their own around the Peloponnese with their navy.

Eventually, it was the creation of a navy that enabled Sparta to overcome Athens. With Persian gold, Lysander, appointed navarch in BC, was able to master a strong navy, and successfully challenge and destroy Athenian predominance in the Aegean Sea.

The final blow would be given 20 years later, at the Battle of Naxos in BC. A small fleet was periodically maintained thereafter, but its effectiveness was limited; the last revival of Spartan naval power was under Nabis , who, with aid from his Cretan allies, created a fleet to control the Laconian coastline.

The fleet was commanded by navarchs , who were appointed for a strictly one-year term, and apparently could not be reappointed. The admirals were subordinated to the vice-admiral, called epistoleus.

This position is seemingly independent of the one-year term clause, because it was used, in BC to give Lysander command of the fleet after he was already an admiral for a year.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Spartan Army. For other uses, see Military history of Sparta disambiguation. Further information: Mycenaean Greece.

Further information: Spartan hegemony. Further information: Agoge.

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