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The standard hydrogen electrode also uses a platinized platinum electrode due to its corrosion resistance, and other attributes.

Coins, bars, and ingots are traded or collected. It is used for this purpose for its prestige and inherent bullion value. Jewellery trade publications advise jewellers to present minute surface scratches which they term patina as a desirable feature in attempt to enhance value of platinum products.

In watchmaking , Vacheron Constantin , Patek Philippe , Rolex , Breitling , and other companies use platinum for producing their limited edition watch series.

Watchmakers appreciate the unique properties of platinum, as it neither tarnishes nor wears out the latter quality relative to gold.

The price of platinum, like other industrial commodities, is more volatile than that of gold. During periods of sustained economic stability and growth, the price of platinum tends to be as much as twice the price of gold, whereas during periods of economic uncertainty, [73] the price of platinum tends to decrease due to reduced industrial demand, falling below the price of gold.

Gold prices are more stable in slow economic times, as gold is considered a safe haven. Although gold is also used in industrial applications, especially in electronics due to its use as a conductor, its demand is not so driven by industrial uses.

In the 18th century, platinum's rarity made King Louis XV of France declare it the only metal fit for a king.

Platinum is used as an alloying agent for various metal products, including fine wires, noncorrosive laboratory containers, medical instruments, dental prostheses, electrical contacts, and thermocouples.

Platinum-cobalt, an alloy of roughly three parts platinum and one part cobalt, is used to make relatively strong permanent magnets.

Platinum's rarity as a metal has caused advertisers to associate it with exclusivity and wealth. Platinum is considered a precious metal, although its use is not as common as the use of gold or silver.

It was the first British crown to be made of this particular metal. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , short-term exposure to platinum salts may cause irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat, and long-term exposure may cause both respiratory and skin allergies.

Platinum-based antineoplastic agents are used in chemotherapy , and show good activity against some tumors. As platinum is a catalyst in the manufacture of the silicone rubber and gel components of several types of medical implants breast implants, joint replacement prosthetics, artificial lumbar discs, vascular access ports, etc.

The Food and Drug Administration and other institutions have reviewed the issue and found no evidence to suggest toxicity in vivo. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

This article is about the chemical element. For other uses, see Platinum disambiguation. Chemical element with atomic number See also: Platinum group.

Main article: Isotopes of platinum. Main articles: Platinum as an investment and Platinum coin. See also: Platinum album and Platinum color.

List of countries by platinum production Mixed metal oxide electrode Platinum in Africa Platinum nanoparticle Iron—platinum nanoparticle Platinum print s commodities boom Platinum group.

Pure and Applied Chemistry. Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 20 August Dalton Transactions. Chemistry Foundations and Applications.

Thomson Gale. Chaston, Platinum Metals Rev. Macmillan Journals Limited. Archived from the original on 24 March In Lide, David R.

January Handbook of corrosion data. Ammonium Hexachloroplatinate IV. Inorganic Syntheses. Angewandte Chemie International Edition. New Scientist.

Encyclopaedia of Occupational Health and Safety: Chemical, industries and occupations. International Labour Organization.

ASTM International. Alaska Community Database Online. Archived from the original on 22 December Retrieved 12 April Minerals Engineering. Grant Cawthorn Platinum Metals Review.

Retrieved 24 December Kirk Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. New York Times. Archived from the original on 3 February Retrieved 9 September July Archived PDF from the original on 7 July Retrieved 17 July The Hindu.

Chennai, India. Archived from the original on 6 December Meteorites: flux with time and impact effects. Greenwood Press. Journal of the American Chemical Society.

Inorganic Chemistry. Handbook of Inorganic Compounds. Bibcode : Natur. Inorganica Chimica Acta. Chemical Communications. Solid State Sciences.

Bibcode : SSSci Journal of Physical Chemistry C. Metal Ions in Life Sciences. Chemical Society Reviews. Saux III 7 July Practical Oncology Protocols.

Mill City Press, Incorporated. Archived from the original on 9 November Retrieved 11 June Ruhul; Razzaque, Mohammed S.

Cisplatin-Associated Nephrotoxicity and Pathological Events. Contributions to Nephrology. Hesse Jewelrymaking Through History: An Encyclopedia.

Greenwood Publishing Group. The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology. SAGE Publications. Scott and Warwick Bray In the 22 years of Super Rugby, the Crusaders have won 9 titles, been finalists 13 times and semi-finalists 18 times, plus we are the only Super Rugby team to win every game in a whole season.

We have great people behind us, who do their job with passion and continuously contribute to our culture.

This makes all the difference to our performance and success. Following the 25 year award there will an ongoing award for the current best sporting team in Australasia based on a 5 year time span.

This will add teams currently in existence that have been participating for a minimum of 5 years in line with the other eligibility criteria.

Understanding the size and variety of the sporting landscape in Australia gives some idea of the complexity of determining the best team.

The following leagues have existed or attempted to make a start in Australia. The leagues in Red were unable to qualify due to one or more of the following:.

Teams that do not feature in the top 25 will be affected by either; overall raw performance, tenure, stability of the league and size of the league.

Stability of a league and size of a league are important elements in understanding performance in context.

Other competitions that move back to a league from a carnival format will need to do so for a 5-year minimum. What makes a winning team?

Jump to. Concept Overview. After publishing the report in , Ulloa did not continue to investigate the new metal.

In , he was sent to superintend mercury mining operations in Huancavelica. In , Charles Wood, [53] a British metallurgist , found various samples of Colombian platinum in Jamaica, which he sent to William Brownrigg for further investigation.

In , after studying the platinum sent to him by Wood, Brownrigg presented a detailed account of the metal to the Royal Society , stating that he had seen no mention of it in any previous accounts of known minerals.

In , Henrik Scheffer published a detailed scientific description of the metal, which he referred to as "white gold", including an account of how he succeeded in fusing platinum ore with the aid of arsenic.

Scheffer described platinum as being less pliable than gold, but with similar resistance to corrosion. Carl von Sickingen researched platinum extensively in He succeeded in making malleable platinum by alloying it with gold, dissolving the alloy in hot aqua regia , precipitating the platinum with ammonium chloride , igniting the ammonium chloroplatinate, and hammering the resulting finely divided platinum to make it cohere.

Franz Karl Achard made the first platinum crucible in He worked with the platinum by fusing it with arsenic, then later volatilizing the arsenic.

Because the other platinum-family members were not discovered yet platinum was the first in the list , Scheffer and Sickingen made the false assumption that due to its hardness—which is slightly more than for pure iron —platinum would be a relatively non-pliable material, even brittle at times, when in fact its ductility and malleability are close to that of gold.

Their assumptions could not be avoided because the platinum they experimented with was highly contaminated with minute amounts of platinum-family elements such as osmium and iridium , amongst others, which embrittled the platinum alloy.

Alloying this impure platinum residue called "plyoxen" with gold was the only solution at the time to obtain a pliable compound, but nowadays, very pure platinum is available and extremely long wires can be drawn from pure platinum, very easily, due to its crystalline structure, which is similar to that of many soft metals.

Chabaneau succeeded in removing various impurities from the ore, including gold, mercury, lead, copper, and iron.

This led him to believe he was working with a single metal, but in truth the ore still contained the yet-undiscovered platinum-group metals.

This led to inconsistent results in his experiments. At times, the platinum seemed malleable, but when it was alloyed with iridium, it would be much more brittle.

Sometimes the metal was entirely incombustible, but when alloyed with osmium, it would volatilize. This started what is known as the "platinum age" in Spain.

Platinum, along with the rest of the platinum-group metals , is obtained commercially as a by-product from nickel and copper mining and processing.

During electrorefining of copper , noble metals such as silver, gold and the platinum-group metals as well as selenium and tellurium settle to the bottom of the cell as "anode mud", which forms the starting point for the extraction of the platinum-group metals.

If pure platinum is found in placer deposits or other ores, it is isolated from them by various methods of subtracting impurities.

Because platinum is significantly denser than many of its impurities, the lighter impurities can be removed by simply floating them away in a liquid.

Platinum is paramagnetic , whereas nickel and iron are both ferromagnetic. These two impurities are thus removed by running an electromagnet over the mixture.

Because platinum has a higher melting point than most other substances, many impurities can be burned or melted away without melting the platinum.

Finally, platinum is resistant to hydrochloric and sulfuric acids, whereas other substances are readily attacked by them. Metal impurities can be removed by stirring the mixture in either of the two acids and recovering the remaining platinum.

One suitable method for purification for the raw platinum, which contains platinum, gold, and the other platinum-group metals, is to process it with aqua regia , in which palladium, gold and platinum are dissolved, whereas osmium, iridium, ruthenium and rhodium stay unreacted.

The gold is precipitated by the addition of iron II chloride and after filtering off the gold, the platinum is precipitated as ammonium chloroplatinate by the addition of ammonium chloride.

Ammonium chloroplatinate can be converted to platinum by heating. The remaining The most common use of platinum is as a catalyst in chemical reactions, often as platinum black.

It has been employed as a catalyst since the early 19th century, when platinum powder was used to catalyze the ignition of hydrogen.

Its most important application is in automobiles as a catalytic converter , which allows the complete combustion of low concentrations of unburned hydrocarbons from the exhaust into carbon dioxide and water vapor.

Platinum is also used in the petroleum industry as a catalyst in a number of separate processes, but especially in catalytic reforming of straight-run naphthas into higher-octane gasoline that becomes rich in aromatic compounds.

PtO 2 , also known as Adams' catalyst , is used as a hydrogenation catalyst, specifically for vegetable oils. From to , the meter was defined as the length of a platinum-iridium alloy bar, known as the international prototype of the meter.

The previous bar was made of platinum in Until May , the kilogram was defined as the mass of the international prototype of the kilogram , a cylinder of the same platinum-iridium alloy made in The standard hydrogen electrode also uses a platinized platinum electrode due to its corrosion resistance, and other attributes.

Coins, bars, and ingots are traded or collected. It is used for this purpose for its prestige and inherent bullion value.

Jewellery trade publications advise jewellers to present minute surface scratches which they term patina as a desirable feature in attempt to enhance value of platinum products.

In watchmaking , Vacheron Constantin , Patek Philippe , Rolex , Breitling , and other companies use platinum for producing their limited edition watch series.

Watchmakers appreciate the unique properties of platinum, as it neither tarnishes nor wears out the latter quality relative to gold.

The price of platinum, like other industrial commodities, is more volatile than that of gold. During periods of sustained economic stability and growth, the price of platinum tends to be as much as twice the price of gold, whereas during periods of economic uncertainty, [73] the price of platinum tends to decrease due to reduced industrial demand, falling below the price of gold.

Gold prices are more stable in slow economic times, as gold is considered a safe haven. Although gold is also used in industrial applications, especially in electronics due to its use as a conductor, its demand is not so driven by industrial uses.

In the 18th century, platinum's rarity made King Louis XV of France declare it the only metal fit for a king.

Platinum is used as an alloying agent for various metal products, including fine wires, noncorrosive laboratory containers, medical instruments, dental prostheses, electrical contacts, and thermocouples.

Platinum-cobalt, an alloy of roughly three parts platinum and one part cobalt, is used to make relatively strong permanent magnets.

Platinum's rarity as a metal has caused advertisers to associate it with exclusivity and wealth. Platinum is considered a precious metal, although its use is not as common as the use of gold or silver.

It was the first British crown to be made of this particular metal. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , short-term exposure to platinum salts may cause irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat, and long-term exposure may cause both respiratory and skin allergies.

Platinum-based antineoplastic agents are used in chemotherapy , and show good activity against some tumors.

As platinum is a catalyst in the manufacture of the silicone rubber and gel components of several types of medical implants breast implants, joint replacement prosthetics, artificial lumbar discs, vascular access ports, etc.

The Food and Drug Administration and other institutions have reviewed the issue and found no evidence to suggest toxicity in vivo.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the chemical element. For other uses, see Platinum disambiguation.

Chemical element with atomic number See also: Platinum group. Main article: Isotopes of platinum. Main articles: Platinum as an investment and Platinum coin.

See also: Platinum album and Platinum color. List of countries by platinum production Mixed metal oxide electrode Platinum in Africa Platinum nanoparticle Iron—platinum nanoparticle Platinum print s commodities boom Platinum group.

Pure and Applied Chemistry. Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 20 August Dalton Transactions. Chemistry Foundations and Applications.

Thomson Gale. Chaston, Platinum Metals Rev. Macmillan Journals Limited. Archived from the original on 24 March In Lide, David R.

January Handbook of corrosion data. Ammonium Hexachloroplatinate IV. Inorganic Syntheses.

Angewandte Chemie International Edition. New Scientist. Encyclopaedia of Occupational Health and Safety: Chemical, industries and occupations.

International Labour Organization. ASTM International. Alaska Community Database Online. Archived from the original on 22 December Retrieved 12 April Minerals Engineering.

As platinum is a catalyst in the manufacture of the silicone rubber and gel components of several types of medical Csgo Stong breast implants, joint replacement prosthetics, artificial lumbar discs, vascular access ports, Beste Spielothek in WanhС†den finden. Secondly to reflect the longevity of the club by being rewarded for their tenure within the 25 years, including any sanctions for non-compliance with competition rules. Because the other platinum-family members were not discovered yet platinum was the first in the list check this out, Scheffer and Sickingen made the false assumption that due to its hardness—which is slightly more than for pure iron —platinum click the following article be a relatively non-pliable material, even brittle at times, when in fact its ductility and malleability are close to that of gold. Springer Series in Materials Science, Volume It was often simply thrown away, and there was an official decree forbidding the adulteration of gold with platinum impurities. It was referenced in European writings as early as 16th century, but it was not until Antonio de Ulloa published a report on a https://realestate-investments.co/novoline-casino-online/beste-spielothek-in-karnap-finden.php metal of Colombian origin in that it began to be investigated by scientists.

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Skip to main content By continuing to browse our site or clicking "I agree," you agree to the storing of cookies on your computer or device.

I Agree. Non-Gaming Hotel choose the quieter side of Vegas. Your browser does not support the video tag. Learn More. Platinum is a chemical element with the symbol Pt and atomic number It is a dense , malleable , ductile , highly unreactive, precious , silverish-white transition metal.

Its name is derived from the Spanish term platino , meaning "little silver". Platinum is a member of the platinum group of elements and group 10 of the periodic table of elements.

It has six naturally occurring isotopes. Because of its scarcity in Earth's crust, only a few hundred tonnes are produced annually, and given its important uses, it is highly valuable and is a major precious metal commodity.

Platinum is one of the least reactive metals. It has remarkable resistance to corrosion , even at high temperatures, and is therefore considered a noble metal.

Consequently, platinum is often found chemically uncombined as native platinum. Because it occurs naturally in the alluvial sands of various rivers, it was first used by pre-Columbian South American natives to produce artifacts.

It was referenced in European writings as early as 16th century, but it was not until Antonio de Ulloa published a report on a new metal of Colombian origin in that it began to be investigated by scientists.

Platinum is used in catalytic converters , laboratory equipment, electrical contacts and electrodes , platinum resistance thermometers , dentistry equipment, and jewelry.

Being a heavy metal , it leads to health problems upon exposure to its salts ; but due to its corrosion resistance, metallic platinum has not been linked to adverse health effects.

Pure platinum is a lustrous, ductile , and malleable , silver-white metal. Platinum is insoluble in hydrochloric and nitric acid , but dissolves in hot aqua regia A mixture of nitric and hydrochloric acids , to form chloroplatinic acid , H 2 PtCl 6.

Its physical characteristics and chemical stability make it useful for industrial applications. As is expected, tetracoordinate platinum II compounds tend to adopt electron square planar geometries.

Although elemental platinum is generally unreactive, it dissolves in hot aqua regia to give aqueous chloroplatinic acid H 2 PtCl 6 : [16].

As a soft acid , platinum has a great affinity for sulfur, such as on dimethyl sulfoxide DMSO ; numerous DMSO complexes have been reported and care should be taken in the choice of reaction solvent.

In , Gerhard Ertl won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for determining the detailed molecular mechanisms of the catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide over platinum catalytic converter.

The most abundant of these is Pt, comprising Of the naturally occurring isotopes, only Pt is unstable, though it decays with a half-life of 6.

Platinum also has 34 synthetic isotopes ranging in atomic mass from to , making the total number of known isotopes Most platinum isotopes decay by some combination of beta decay and alpha decay.

Platinum is an extremely rare metal, [20] occurring at a concentration of only 0. Platinum is often found chemically uncombined as native platinum and as alloy with the other platinum-group metals and iron mostly.

Most often the native platinum is found in secondary deposits in alluvial deposits. Another large alluvial deposit is in the Ural Mountains , Russia, and it is still mined.

In nickel and copper deposits, platinum-group metals occur as sulfides e. Pt,Pd S , tellurides e. PtBiTe , antimonides PdSb , and arsenides e.

PtAs 2 , and as end alloys with nickel or copper. Platinum arsenide, sperrylite PtAs 2 , is a major source of platinum associated with nickel ores in the Sudbury Basin deposit in Ontario , Canada.

The mine ceased operations in In , chromites were identified in the Bushveld region of South Africa, followed by the discovery of platinum in In the Sudbury Basin, the huge quantities of nickel ore processed make up for the fact platinum is present as only 0.

Smaller reserves can be found in the United States, [27] for example in the Absaroka Range in Montana. Large platinum deposits are present in the state of Tamil Nadu , India.

Platinum exists in higher abundances on the Moon and in meteorites. Correspondingly, platinum is found in slightly higher abundances at sites of bolide impact on Earth that are associated with resulting post-impact volcanism, and can be mined economically; the Sudbury Basin is one such example.

Hexachloroplatinic acid mentioned above is probably the most important platinum compound, as it serves as the precursor for many other platinum compounds.

By itself, it has various applications in photography, zinc etchings, indelible ink , plating, mirrors, porcelain coloring, and as a catalyst.

Treatment of hexachloroplatinic acid with an ammonium salt, such as ammonium chloride , gives ammonium hexachloroplatinate , [16] which is relatively insoluble in ammonium solutions.

Heating this ammonium salt in the presence of hydrogen reduces it to elemental platinum. Potassium hexachloroplatinate is similarly insoluble, and hexachloroplatinic acid has been used in the determination of potassium ions by gravimetry.

When hexachloroplatinic acid is heated, it decomposes through platinum IV chloride and platinum II chloride to elemental platinum, although the reactions do not occur stepwise: [34].

All three reactions are reversible. Platinum II and platinum IV bromides are known as well.

Platinum hexafluoride is a strong oxidizer capable of oxidizing oxygen. Platinum IV oxide , PtO 2 , also known as ' Adams' catalyst ', is a black powder that is soluble in potassium hydroxide KOH solutions and concentrated acids.

Unlike palladium acetate , platinum II acetate is not commercially available. Where a base is desired, the halides have been used in conjunction with sodium acetate.

Zeise's salt , containing an ethylene ligand, was one of the first organometallic compounds discovered. Dichloro cycloocta-1,5-diene platinum II is a commercially available olefin complex, which contains easily displaceable cod ligands "cod" being an abbreviation of 1,5-cyclooctadiene.

The cod complex and the halides are convenient starting points to platinum chemistry. Cisplatin , or cis -diamminedichloroplatinum II is the first of a series of square planar platinum II -containing chemotherapy drugs.

These compounds are capable of crosslinking DNA , and kill cells by similar pathways to alkylating chemotherapeutic agents.

Archaeologists have discovered traces of platinum in the gold used in ancient Egyptian burials as early as BC. For example, a small box from burial of Shepenupet II was found to be decorated with gold-platinum hieroglyphics.

It is quite possible they did not recognize there was platinum in their gold. The metal was used by pre-Columbian Americans near modern-day Esmeraldas, Ecuador to produce artifacts of a white gold-platinum alloy.

Archeologists usually associate the tradition of platinum-working in South America with the La Tolita Culture circa BC - AD , but precise dates and location is difficult, as most platinum artifacts from the area were bought secondhand through the antiquities trade rather than obtained by direct archeological excavation.

The resulting gold-platinum alloy would then be soft enough to shape with tools. It was often simply thrown away, and there was an official decree forbidding the adulteration of gold with platinum impurities.

Ulloa and Juan found mines with the whitish metal nuggets and took them home to Spain. Antonio de Ulloa returned to Spain and established the first mineralogy lab in Spain and was the first to systematically study platinum, which was in His historical account of the expedition included a description of platinum as being neither separable nor calcinable.

Ulloa also anticipated the discovery of platinum mines. After publishing the report in , Ulloa did not continue to investigate the new metal.

In , he was sent to superintend mercury mining operations in Huancavelica. In , Charles Wood, [53] a British metallurgist , found various samples of Colombian platinum in Jamaica, which he sent to William Brownrigg for further investigation.

In , after studying the platinum sent to him by Wood, Brownrigg presented a detailed account of the metal to the Royal Society , stating that he had seen no mention of it in any previous accounts of known minerals.

In , Henrik Scheffer published a detailed scientific description of the metal, which he referred to as "white gold", including an account of how he succeeded in fusing platinum ore with the aid of arsenic.

Scheffer described platinum as being less pliable than gold, but with similar resistance to corrosion. Carl von Sickingen researched platinum extensively in He succeeded in making malleable platinum by alloying it with gold, dissolving the alloy in hot aqua regia , precipitating the platinum with ammonium chloride , igniting the ammonium chloroplatinate, and hammering the resulting finely divided platinum to make it cohere.

Franz Karl Achard made the first platinum crucible in He worked with the platinum by fusing it with arsenic, then later volatilizing the arsenic.

Because the other platinum-family members were not discovered yet platinum was the first in the list , Scheffer and Sickingen made the false assumption that due to its hardness—which is slightly more than for pure iron —platinum would be a relatively non-pliable material, even brittle at times, when in fact its ductility and malleability are close to that of gold.

Their assumptions could not be avoided because the platinum they experimented with was highly contaminated with minute amounts of platinum-family elements such as osmium and iridium , amongst others, which embrittled the platinum alloy.

Alloying this impure platinum residue called "plyoxen" with gold was the only solution at the time to obtain a pliable compound, but nowadays, very pure platinum is available and extremely long wires can be drawn from pure platinum, very easily, due to its crystalline structure, which is similar to that of many soft metals.

Chabaneau succeeded in removing various impurities from the ore, including gold, mercury, lead, copper, and iron.

This led him to believe he was working with a single metal, but in truth the ore still contained the yet-undiscovered platinum-group metals.

This led to inconsistent results in his experiments. At times, the platinum seemed malleable, but when it was alloyed with iridium, it would be much more brittle.

Sometimes the metal was entirely incombustible, but when alloyed with osmium, it would volatilize. This started what is known as the "platinum age" in Spain.

Platinum, along with the rest of the platinum-group metals , is obtained commercially as a by-product from nickel and copper mining and processing.

During electrorefining of copper , noble metals such as silver, gold and the platinum-group metals as well as selenium and tellurium settle to the bottom of the cell as "anode mud", which forms the starting point for the extraction of the platinum-group metals.

If pure platinum is found in placer deposits or other ores, it is isolated from them by various methods of subtracting impurities.

Because platinum is significantly denser than many of its impurities, the lighter impurities can be removed by simply floating them away in a liquid.

Platinum is paramagnetic , whereas nickel and iron are both ferromagnetic. Read more. Best Sporting Team Scott Robertson, Coach.

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